THE PROBLEM OF EXPERIMENTAL MODEL CHOICE IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCHES OF IMPLANTS (REVIEW)
Background: Biomedical researches and improvement of methods for medical materials manufacturing with certain properties and their pharmacological support caused the integration of achievements in materials science and medicine and the emergence of a new medical industry, called implantology. One of its main problems is the creation of models for testing new materials with the possibility of extrapolating to clinical situations in humans. To create and study such models, one of the key and difficult moments is the justification of the choice of an object of research possessing certain properties. The aim of the study: Analysis of literature data on the comparative characteristics of experimental models for the investigation of metal implants in vitro and on different animals, taking into account technical, anatomical features, ethical aspects and adequacy of the data obtained for clinical situations. Materials and methods: Modern literature data were used to compare the similarities between the bones of some mammals and human bones in terms of micro- and macrostructure indicators, composition and remodeling. Results: Among the various animals used in biomedical research, comparable to clinical situations in humans according to the data of the majority of authors are models on dogs whose biological features of bones are comparable to those in humans. However, it is advisable to use other animals widely used in experiments, such as rabbits, when screening studies are performed. Conclusion: It was found that dogs are most consistent with the key characteristics of a suitable model. The use of other animals such as rabbits has a number of obstacles, both technical and ethical, and therefore their use is advisable only for screening purposes before testing implants in other animals.