Premature birth, modern realities
Background: Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal and infant mortality, child morbidity and disability. The rate of premature birth, despite our knowledge of risk factors, pathogenetic mechanisms of formation and modern diagnostic capabilities, does not tend to decrease, occupying 6% of the total number of births in our country. The aim of the study:The purpose of the research was to study the state of the problem of preterm birth on the basis of available literature data. Materials and methods: The analysis of available national and foreign literature data concerning the problem of preterm birth over the past five years was carried out. PubMed, Elibrary, Scopus computer databases were used. Results: There are many reasons leading to premature birth. However it is known for certain, that the main etiological factor leading to premature birth is the inflammatory process, in the vast majority of cases caused by opportunistic microflora. Our arsenal includes clinical, laboratory and instrumental methods that allow us to determine the presence of infection and take the necessary measures in time. It is difficult to diagnose and treat "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which is formed because of the lack of timely treatment of bacterial vaginosis and, to a lesser extent, vulvovaginal candidiasis, as well as asymptomatic bacteriuria. Conclusion: Preterm birth is a leading medical and social problem that leads to high child morbidity, disability, and mortality, which negatively affects the psychoemotional health of not only a single family, but also the gene pool of the nation. The modern approach to pregnancy management is based on evidence-based medicine with clear implementation of clinical recommendations that allow to exclude the influence of controlled risk factors at the pregravidar stage and in the first trimester, to carry out timely diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and improve perinatal outcomes.