DOI: 10.18413/2658-6533-2022-8-4-0-7

Coexistence of Urinary Incontinence and Osteoporosis in Females – A Systematic Review

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is described as the involuntary leakage of urine and is a global problem. The younger age groups have the lowest prevalence (12.0%), while the oldest have the greatest (40.0%); however, there is a surge around the middle age. Osteoporosis (OP) is a medical and socioeconomic hazard characterized by the decrease of bone mass, strength throughout the body resulting in lower bone density and a higher risk of fractures. Females become more vulnerable to these conditions as they grow older. The aim of the study: To assess the available research and find links between coexistence of decreased bone health and urinary incontinence in females. Materials and methods: Electronic databases like, CINAHL, Embase, Trip Medical Database, Cochrane Library and Pub Med were the ones searched for relevant articles from January 2011 to January 2022. The PRISMA Statement for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis was used to conduct this systematic review. Results: There were 416 results found in the databases after eliminating the duplicates and studies that were unrelated to the topic. The review included total of five studies and quality assessment was done by four reviewers. Most studies found a strongly significant link between osteoporosis and urinary incontinence, whereas one study found no association. Conclusion: In this study, the five most common associated risk factors were revealed to be menopause, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and hyperlipidemia. Based on recent studies a strong significant link was found between the two health conditions (OP and UI) and coexistence of both conditions was seen in females.

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