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DOI: 10.18413/2658-6533-2022-8-4-0-8

"The blue zones" resilience-diet (review)

Background: Given the progressive aging of the population, the problem of extending healthy longevity while maintaining high vitality is very important. The "blue zones" – the regions with the highest life expectancy – are of particular scientific interest. The views of scientists from all over the world are riveted to the lifestyle of the inhabitants of these territories. The available studies demonstrate the important role of nutrition in longevity, but there is not enough information about a single resistance diet based on foods consumed by long-livers of the "blue zones". The aim of the study: The purpose of this review is to determine whether the nutrition of long-livers of the "blue zones" has the characteristics of a resilience diet. Materials and methods: Literature data were studied based on the following search words: aging, longevity, gerontology, nutrition of centenarians, blue zones, viability, age viability, resilience diet for 2006-2021 in computer databases: NCBI, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cyberleninka, Elsevier and SciELO. Results: Analysis of the literature data showed that the eating habits of centenarians of the "blue zones" of the USA, Greece and Italy, Japan, Costa Rica, Brazil have similar features. Their diet is dominated by plant foods: cereals, beans, pasta from hard varieties, nuts, fruits, vegetables, fresh herbs, olive oil. People in these countries eat meat, especially red meat, milk and dairy products, eggs very rarely, giving preference to fish and seafood. This diet helps prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, colorectal cancer, breast and lung cancer, overweight and obesity, early sarcopenia and dementia, and depression. Due to this, the long-livers of the "blue zones" are characterized by high age viability. Conclusion: Based on the analysis of the nutrition of long-livers in the "blue zones", it is possible to form a resistance diet. The dominant foods in the diet should include unrefined cereals, durum wheat pasta, fresh vegetables and fruits, herbs, algae, fermented foods (tofu, miso, sauerkraut). It is also necessary to consume nuts and legumes, olive oil, fish and seafood daily. White meat, dairy products, eggs should be consumed no more than 1-2 times a week. We should limit or exclude red meat, potatoes, white bread, sweets as much as possible. These dietary interventions may be useful for the formation of a healthy pattern of aging with high age viability.

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