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DOI: 10.18413/2658-6533-2023-9-3-0-8

Biological age as a risk factor for ophthalmological complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Background: An increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in many countries is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in the frequency of diabetic retinopathy, which is the most dangerous complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biological age may be one of the contributing factors in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but the latter remains unexplored in such patients. The aim of the study: To study the biological age as a risk factor for ophthalmic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: Among 580 45-59-year-old patients with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the biological age was determined by the method of Voitenko V.P. et al. [1984]. Three groups were formed: patients with matching biological and chronological age (n=124), with exceeding the chronological biological age (n=357) and with exceeding the biological chronological age (n=99). In the subsequent analysis, the first two groups were considered. The X2 criterion and the discriminant method were used in the work. Results: Among 45-59-year-old patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an excess of the biological age of the chronological value, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 19.82±1.32 cases per 100 examined, whereas among 45-59-year-old patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a correspondence of biological and chronological age – 10.24±1.51 cases per 100 examined. The chronological age of diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in the group of patients with an excess of biological age over chronological age was younger – 47.69±1.24 years versus 50.23±0.92 years in the group with a correspondence of biological and chronological age (p<0.01). On the contrary, the biological age of diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in the group with an excess of the chronological biological age is significantly greater – 56.13±0.83 years than in the comparison group – 49.61±1.11 years (p<0.001). By means of the discriminant method and taking into account the parameters of biological age, discriminant models have been developed to ensure the differentiation of these patients. Conclusion: Exceeding the chronological biological age is a significant risk factor for ophthalmological complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus – diabetic retinopathy in 45-59 years.

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