DOI: 10.18413/2658- 6533-2022-8-2-0-9

Characteristics of nutrition in elderly people with adentia: geriatric and dietary aspects

Background: To date, many evidence-based studies have provided data that give insight into the clear relationship between the severity of adentia as a manifestation of age-related oral syndrome and the risk of developing malnutrition syndrome. At the same time, clinical practice shows that restoring the integrity of the dentition does not reduce the risk of developing malnutrition syndrome to the same level as in people with preserved dentition. Therefore, it seems relevant to study the nutritional characteristics of people with adentia before and after prosthetic dentistry procedures. The aim of the study: To study the main nutrition characteristics in elderly people with adentia before and after prosthetic dentistry procedures. Materials and methods: The study included 198 elderly people with age-related oral cavity syndrome in the form of adentia.  The age of patients ranged from 60 to 69 years, the average age was 64.2+2.2 years, including 93 men and 105 women. The degree of adentia was assessed in all patients. To assess the character of adentia, the classification of E. Kennedy was used. Nutrition characteristics were given according to the questionnaire by M.V. Koroleva (2020). Nutrition characteristics were studied before prosthetic dentistry procedures and 6 months after its completion. Results: In senile mouth, manifested by adentia, there is a natural decrease in protein intake (due to animal and fish products) and fresh vegetables and fruits. With the increasing severity of adentia, the consumption of salt and sugar increases. After prosthetic dentistry procedures, the dietary characteristics of nutrition change in a positive direction: the amount of consumption of protein foods, fresh vegetables and fruits increases, the frequency and time characteristics of food intake normalize. However, the reduction in salt and sugar consumption remains at an elevated level, which may indicate the presence of other than adentia, initial disorders in the dietary characteristics of the elderly. This actualizes the need for further research in the field of taste and appetite functions in elderly people with senile mouth. Conclusion: Thus, senile mouth in the form of adentia leads to a violation of the dietary characteristics of nutrition in the form of a decrease in protein intake, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits with a simultaneous increase in salt and sugar intake and the multiplicity of meals to achieve saturation. Restoring the function of the oral cavity in people with adentia by restoring the shape and function of the dentition improves, but does not lead to complete normalization of dietary characteristics in elderly people with age-related oral cavity syndrome, which preserves the risks for the development of malnutrition syndrome.

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