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DOI: 10.18413/2313-8955-2016-2-4-4-12

MODERN RESEARCH AND THINKING ABOUT THE EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF UROLITHIASIS

Urolithiasis ranks second in the urologic incidence, being preceded only by infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system. In 2010, the prevalence of urolithiasis in the US was approximately 14%, in Russia - 5.7%, in Spain - 5.6%, in Brazil - 5%, in Taiwan - 7.4%, in Turkey - 14.8%, and in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) the prevalence of urolithiasis reached more than 20%. At the same time the incidence of this disease is growing rapidly every year, in spite of the progress in medical science. This may be explained by the risk factors such as urbanization, lack of exercise, frequent stressful situations, errors in dietary habits, and environmental degradation. Thus, urolithiasis is one of the most important and economically significant problems not only in urology but also in related fields of medicine, because it requires a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis, treatment and prevention. A clear understanding of the risk factors of urolithiasis and possible lithogenesis mechanism will allow researchers and clinicians to have a more sensible approach to the treatment and prevention of this disease.

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