Vaccination against human papillomavirus is a fundamental factor in the prevention of cervical cancer (review)
Background: Infection of the sexually active population with the human papillomavirus is one of the major health problems worldwide, due to the risk of malignant neoplasms of the cervix, vagina, vulva, rectum, penis, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx. That is why preventing human papillomavirus infection by vaccination becomes a priority. The relatively short duration of use and lack of vaccines in the National Vaccination Program is a cause for ongoing debate about immunization safety, which, along with the high cost of vaccines, limits their widespread use. The aim of the study: To analyze the results of vaccination, based on research data from recent years, which will dispel false fears and increase the commitment of specialists and the population of our country to primary prevention of cervical cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the literature data of the results of vaccination against papillomavirus published over the past decade. The following sources were used: PubMed, E-library and Scopus. Results: A high-level evidence-based analysis of the literature has demonstrated the efficacy and safety of papillomavirus vaccination: it is included in national immunization programs in 107 countries, according to the World Health Organization for 2020. The rates of human papillomavirus infection, anogenital condylomas, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer, and other localized cancers induced by the papillomavirus, and mortality from these cancers are significantly lower in countries where the vaccination against human papillomavirus was launched at least 5 years ago at the national level. Unfortunately, in the Russian Federation, there is no such national program, vaccination is limited and carried out exclusively as part of regional projects. Conclusion: The data we have collected confirm the effectiveness of vaccination against human papillomavirus and dictate the need to include it in the current, rather than "ideal", National Preventive Immunization Calendar. The system of school vaccination which is organized in the Russian Federation is most favorable for the primary prevention from papillomavirus infection, what was shown by the example of other countries (Australia). According to forecasts, the use of the vaccine in our country at the state level will demonstrate clinical and economic feasibility in the coming years from the beginning of use.